K5 – Beech woodlands:
High-growing (in mature state 20–35 m high), closed (canopy closure: 80–100%), mesic forests, with beech monodominace (>60%), and with species of mesic forests in the herb layer. They cover 110000 ha altogether in the country. The habitat occurs with the greatest extension in the Északi-középhegység (45000 ha, frequent in the mountains of Bükk, Mátra, Börzsöny and Sátor-hegység, rather sporadic in Cserhát, and missing from Cserehát and from the Gödöllői-dombvidék). It covers also large areas in the Dunántúli-középhegység (30000 ha, mainly in Bakony, also frequent in the Pilis and in the Visegrádi-hegység and in the north-western part of Vértes, missing from the Velencei-hegység), on Nyugat-Dunántúl (22000 ha, Soproni- and Kőszegi-hegység, Kemeneshát, Őrség, Vendvidék and Zalai-dombság), and in certain parts of Dél-Dunántúl (12500 ha, with larger extension in Zselic and Mecsek, and sporadically in Külső- and Belső-Somogy). Nowadays it is actually absent from Alföld (only very small stands occur on Dráva-sík). Beech woodlands are connected to cool and humid climate. In regions with less favourable environment (too dry) for beech and/or under strong human impact the habitat is gradually withdrawing (e.g. Cserhát, Külső- and Belső-Somogy, northern slopes of the Dunántúli-középhegység). It is easy to recognize and interpret this habitat; only those stands can cause problems that consist of less beech and more associate tree species (hornbeam, ash) and create transitions to other mesic forests (K2, K1a, etc.). Where these transitional stands cover larger areas mixed with stands of beech dominance, the estimation of the habitat extension can be uncertain (especially in the southern and western part of Dunántúl).
Molnár, Zs., M. Biró, J. Bölöni & F. Horváth (2008): Distribution of the (semi-)natural habitats in Hungary I.: Marshes and grasslands, Acta Botanica Hungarica 50 (Suppl): 59-105. >>> letöltés (5,4 MB, PDF)
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